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Analyzing Ticketmaster Sample Data Breach: Key Insights and Implications

As commented in our previous blog, The Resurgence of Major Data Breaches?, in May 2024, a potential data breach involving Ticketmaster surfaced on deep and dark web forums, and we want to analyze it as a sample data breach. The original breach, as shown in the accompanying image below, was posted by the user named ShinyHunters on May 28, 2024. This breach includes data of 560 million customers and 1.3TB of detailed information, including full names, addresses, emails, phone numbers, ticket sales, event information, order details, credit card details, customer fraud details, and more. The data was offered for sale at a price of $500,000 USD.

sample data breach

Understanding the Breach

Recently, another user named Sp1d3r seems to have taken more prominence on the forum, possibly due to the ShinyHunters user having fallen back to a somewhat more secondary role. Sp1d3r advertised the data on the forum, indicating that the potential data breach affected 680 million customers, with data available for $100,000 USD. In addition to selling the entire 680M data set, it has offered a sample of the first million records to all users.

ticketmaster saample data breach

Constella Intelligence obtained the 1 million records sample offered in the forum and analyzed it, providing a glimpse into the scale and severity of the incident. The sample dataset includes:

  • Personal Information: Names, email addresses, phone numbers, physical addresses.
  • Financial Data: Credit card details, payment methods, and transaction information.
  • Web Sessions and Cookies: Session details, IP addresses, browser identifiers.
  • Transaction Details: Purchase history, patron IDs, party lookup IDs.

Key Statistics from the Sample

Analyzing the sample dataset provides several important statistics that illustrate the scope and impact of the potential breach. These statistics offer a quantitative perspective on the breach, helping to understand the extent of the data exposure and identify trends that could inform future protective measures.

  • Total Records: 999,998 entries
  • Total Fields: 53 fields encompassing various data types
  • Email Statistics: 999,985 total email addresses, 761,041 unique email addresses
  • Top Email Domains: Gmail.com (620,985), Yahoo.com (57,796), Hotmail.com (45,490)
  • Geographical Distribution: USA (800,414 records), Mexico (99,910), Canada (64,011)
  • Payment Methods: VISA (429,279 records), MasterCard (304,484), American Express (64,369), PayPal (59,747)

AI-Driven Scams: What You Need to Know

sample data breach ai scams

The exposure of such detailed and sensitive information in the potential data breach poses several significant risks to the affected individuals. At Constella, in our experience, we are seeing many spear phishing attacks that use credit card data or payment methods as inputs for AI models trained to generate realistic, targeted phishing attacks.

Spear phishing is a targeted attack aimed at stealing sensitive information from a specific individual by posing as a trusted entity. Unlike mass phishing, it is highly personalized and tailored using detailed information from breaches.

With access to names, email addresses, financial information, payment methods, web session cookies and transaction histories, threat actors can create highly convincing emails that appear legitimate using actual AI tools (using LLM models like WormGPT, HackerGPT or DarkBERT, or even prompt jailbreaking into corporate LLM modes).

As the previous example, an email might reference recent user purchases or use personal financial information to make the message more believable. The use of AI can enhance the realism and effectiveness of these scams, making it harder for individuals to distinguish fraudulent emails from legitimate ones.

Protecting Exposed Data

If the information published by “Sp1d3r” is accurate, Constella recommends taking the following actions:

  1. Clear cookies and close any active sessions: Regularly clearing your browser cookies and cache and closing any active sessions can help protect your web session data.
  2. Reset the password associated with your account and any other accounts using the same password: Although Ticketmaster claims that no passwords were compromised and the banking data is encrypted, it is wise to reset the password for your Ticketmaster account and any other accounts using the same password. Use strong, unique passwords for each account, and consider using a password manager to generate and store these securely.
  3. Stay alert for possible spear-phishing campaigns, as mentioned earlier: Be vigilant with emails, especially those that seem related to Ticketmaster or recent transactions. Avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown senders, and verify the authenticity of any requests for personal information.

By following these specific recommendations, individuals can better protect their personal information and mitigate the impact of data breaches like the one potentially experienced by Ticketmaster.

Infostealers on the Rise: A New Wave of Major Data Breaches?

This blog continues our previous article, The Resurgence of Major Data Breaches, where we discussed the alarming increase infostealers in data breaches orchestrated by the notorious ShinyHunters group. In this part, we delve into the role of infostealers in these breaches and how they contribute to the rising wave of cyberattacks.

Why Are We Seeing More Major Breaches?

Lately, we have noticed an alarming increase in the number of major data breaches, with millions of records being exposed and shared on dark web forums. This resurgence has been driven in large part by the spread of infostealers – malicious software designed to gradually and unobtrusively steal sensitive information from infected devices without the victim’s awareness. This wave of cyberattacks, along with the resurgence of the names of these former hacking groups/users, raises the question of whether we are entering another “golden age” of mass leaks, similar to what we experienced a few years ago.

The potential reason behind these significant breaches could be the mass leakage of credentials due to infections from various infostealers. Infostealers infiltrate systems through phishing emails, malicious downloads, or compromised websites, extracting valuable data such as usernames, passwords, and other personal information. Once collected, this data is sold or shared on dark websites, providing cybercriminals with the tools they need to conduct further attacks.

Analysis of Notorious Infostealers

Analysis of how infostealers operate reveals that their modus operandi typically involves certain threat actors developing these tools as a service. Other actors then pay to use that infostealer infrastructure, allowing them to simply steal sensitive information from victims easily and efficiently. Let us take a brief look at some of the most infamous infostealer families that are currently wreaking havoc:

  • RedLine Stealer is known for its effectiveness in stealing credentials from browsers, FTP clients, and even cryptocurrency wallets. Distributed through phishing campaigns and malicious downloads, RedLine quickly extracts and transmits sensitive data to attackers. Its widespread use has linked it to numerous breaches, making it a formidable threat in the cybersecurity landscape.
  • Racoon Stealer focuses on stealing information from browsers, email clients, and other software. Its user-friendly interface makes it accessible to even novice cybercriminals. Racoon Stealer has been a key player in many data breaches, contributing significantly to the rise in stolen credentials. Its ease of use and effectiveness has cemented its place in the toolkit of many cybercriminals.
  • Meta Stealer is a versatile malware targeting a broad range of applications and platforms, including browsers, gaming accounts, and VPN credentials. Its adaptability and extensive reach make it a potent tool for cybercriminals aiming to harvest a wide array of sensitive information. The ability to target multiple platforms increases its value and impact, making it a significant threat.
  • Lumma Stealer is particularly well known for its ability to resurrect session cookies, allowing attackers to bypass security measures like multi-factor authentication. This capability has made Lumma a critical component in several high-profile breaches, including recent attacks where stolen session tokens were used to gain unauthorized access. Its advanced functionality poses a serious risk to both individuals and organizations.

Potential for More Major Breaches

A recent analysis conducted by Constella has detected thousands, even millions, of credentials from companies whose employees might be infected by these info stealers. This compromised data includes not only personal information but also access credentials to corporate networks and cloud services. Such widespread exposure significantly increases the risk of large-scale data breaches similar to those we have seen in recent weeks.

Certain cloud service companies have had between 100k and more than 1M credentials exposed in infostealer infections. This wide range of exposed credentials underscores the pervasive threat posed by infostealers across various cloud services, indicating a high likelihood that both employees and customers are exposed on a daily basis, thus increasing the risk that these credentials will increasingly be used maliciously by threat actors.

Protecting Against Infostealer Threats

Given the current landscape, it is crucial for individuals and employees to take specific measures to protect against infostealer infections and subsequent data breaches:

  1. Use Browser Extensions Cautiously: Avoid installing unnecessary browser extensions, as they can sometimes be exploited by infostealers to capture the credentials and session data.
  2. Monitor for Unusual Browser Behavior: If the browser behaves oddly (e.g., redirects, pop-ups, or unusual login prompts), it could be a sign of an infostealer infection. Disconnect from the internet and start proceeding to remove the infection.
  3. Regularly Clear Cookies and Cache: Periodically clear the browser cookies and cache to minimize the risk of session hijacking through stolen cookies.
  4. Enable Security Features: Use browser security features such as disabling saving autofill and enabling warnings for untrusted websites. Additionally, avoid storing your credentials in the browser to prevent them from being easily stolen. These steps can help make it more difficult to steal such sensitive information.
  5. Protect Against Infostealers: As infostealers are malware designed to steal personal information by exploiting user behavior and system vulnerabilities, avoid downloading files, opening email attachments, or clicking on links from untrusted or unknown sources or without making a thorough prior check of the sender.

By following these targeted recommendations, users and employees can better protect their personal and corporate information from infostealer infections. The fight against these threats is ongoing, but with the right precautions, we can mitigate their impact and safeguard our data and privacy.

The Resurgence of Major Data Breaches?

In the past few weeks, we have noticed an alarming increase in major data breaches, with millions of records being exposed and shared on dark web forums. This resurgence has been largely driven by a user who appears to be using the name ShinyHunters, a notorious hacking group. This wave of cyberattacks, along with the resurgence of the names of these former hacking groups/users, raises the question of whether we are entering another “golden age” of mass leaks, similar to what we experienced a few years ago.

The Golden Age of Major Data Breaches

Between 2019 and 2021, the cybersecurity community witnessed what many refer to as the “golden age” of massive data breaches. During this period, numerous hacker groups, including ShinyHunters, conducted large-scale attacks, compromising the data of millions of users. These stolen data were shared and sold on the dark web, creating a highly lucrative black market for personal and business information.

ShinyHunters stood out during this period for their attacks on companies such as Tokopedia, Unacademy, and Zoosk, leaking tons of sensitive data, including names, email addresses, passwords, and more. In 2020 and 2021, ShinyHunters conducted a series of hacks on prominent entities, including clothing retailer Bonobos, photo app Pixlr, and Microsoft’s GitHub account. They also claimed to have information on 70 million AT&T accounts, although AT&T denied the leak.

Recently, a user named ShinyHunters allegedly reopened BreachForums, a deep web forum for sharing stolen data breaches, and became its “owner” after the original forum was taken down. The resurgence of BreachForums at the hands of ShinyHunters has coincided with new leaks of data breaches impacting large companies, along with the emergence of other users registered under the names of former famous hackers and database sharers. This begs the question of whether we could be starting a new “golden age” of breaches. However, due to the major issues the group was facing, including recent arrests, there is a possibility that we are witnessing identity impersonation to gain credibility when sharing breaches.

Recent Breaches

In the last week of May 2024, ShinyHunters was allegedly responsible for two significant breaches. While it cannot be confirmed 100% that ShinyHunters is behind these breaches, the following incidents have been reported:

Santander Bank Breach

  • Countries Affected: Spain, Chile, Uruguay
  • Date Published: May 30, 2024
  • Data Compromised:
    • 30 million customer records
    • 6 million account numbers and balances
    • 28 million credit card numbers
    • HR employee lists
    • Consumer citizenship information
    • And much more
  • Price: $2 million USD

Ticketmaster Breach

  • Date Published: May 28, 2024
  • Data Compromised:
    • Full details of 560 million customers (name, address, email, phone)
    • Ticket sales, event information, order details
    • Credit card details, last 4 digits of the card, expiration date
    • Customer fraud details
    • And much more
  • Price: $500,000 USD

Recommendations if Impacted By Major Data Breaches

To be protected from the repercussions of these breaches, users should consider the following measures:

  1. Be Cautious with Phishing Emails: Avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown or suspicious emails.
  2. Use a Password Manager: A password manager can help securely generate and store complex passwords.
  3. Stay Informed: Keep up to date with the latest news on cybersecurity threats and breaches.

By staying vigilant and taking these proactive steps, users can better protect their personal information from being compromised in future data breaches.

Growing Cyber Threats Amid Israel-Palestine Tensions

Growing Cyber Threats Focus on Ransomware, Infostealers, and Defacements

This blog continues our geopolitical series, highlighting the growing cyber threats during the ongoing Israel-Palestine tensions. Recent months have seen a significant increase in cyberattacks targeting Israeli institutions, with a particular focus on ransomware, infostealers, and defacements. This blog delves into the most recent incidents, primarily orchestrated by the Handala group.

Escalation of Tensions in Israel

As mentioned in our previous blog, the escalating tensions between Israel and Palestine are mirrored in cyberspace by increased activity from the Handala Hack Group. Active since 2011, this pro-Palestinian hacker collective has intensified its cyber offensives against Israeli targets, employing defacements and ransomware attacks to disrupt operations and steal sensitive information. These attacks not only aim to cause financial and operational damage but also to broadcast their political message and gain support against Israel.

Recent Ransomware Attacks by Handala

Handala has potentially conducted numerous ransomware attacks, targeting the technology, education, and healthcare sectors. Here are some of the most recent incidents:

  • On May 27, 2024, Zionist Information Technology was potentially attacked.
    • The affected entities include Cello (formerly Cellopark), MER Group, ForSight Robotics, Magnet Accelerator, Citizen Café Tel Aviv, Toks, Barak Finance, EasyUP, Sirius Electronics, Israel Archaeological Services, and Shai Nursing Company.
    • This attack compromised multiple sectors, including technology, healthcare, and academic services, highlighting significant breaches in Israeli cybersecurity.
  • Ramat Gan Academic College faced a possible attack on May 25, 2024, affecting its educational infrastructure and data.
  • Harmony Pharm, the largest pharmacy in Tel Aviv, was attacked on May 22, 2024, disrupting the pharmaceutical supply chain.
  • Amigour Company, a major housing and community development company, was hacked on May 16, 2024. The attack led to 522 GB of data being dumped and wiped.
  • High Group, a key settlement development source, was attacked on May 2, 2024, resulting in 84 GB of data being dumped.

Defacement Attacks: Exposing the Faces of Cyber Warfare

A defacement attack involves altering the visual appearance of a website, often to display a political or social message. Handala Group and other hacktivist groups have been actively engaging in defacement attacks to criticize and expose Israeli entities publicly.

Here are some notable recent defacements:

  • Handala Group: Two defacements recorded on makombelev.org.il and hadct.co.il
  • Cyb3r_Drag0nz_Team: Defaced www.infodent.co.il and www.argal.co.il
  • Mr.Rm19: Targeted gedera.gogeek.co.il
  • adem:): Defaced maxlock.co.il
  • jokeir 07x: Targeted tudiotb.co.il and ugarit.co.il
  • P1Y4D3: Defaced multiple pages under ugaritgroup.co.il
  • TOMODACHI: Defaced call.ugarit.co.il and mishkan-store.co.il
  • ./r0cky_n00bz: Targeted horoot.co.il
  • Cyber Ghost: Defaced hadpeami.co.il, korki-net.co.il, and shoo-fee.org.il
  • DragonForceMalaysia: Defaced bridgesalon.co.il
  • Hacktivist Indonesia: Targeted isr.org.il
  • JH-TEAM H: Multiple defacements including www.nsc.org.il and maccabi.co.il
  • the key40: Targeted maccabi.co.il
  • systemadminbd: Defaced www.ite-cat.co.il

Infostealer Infections: A Growing Concern

The data previously exposed in ransomware attacks could lead to further infections by infostealers. Infostealers are malware designed to gather sensitive information from infected systems, such as login credentials and personal data.

  • Smart College
  • 99 Digital
  • Ramat Gan Academic College
  • Barak Finance

These infections could be the root cause of some of the previous ransomware attacks or, even worse, could be used to enhance the damage of the existing ones.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The recent surge in cyber attacks amid the Israel-Palestine conflict underscores the evolving nature of digital warfare. Ransomware, infostealers, and defacements are being utilized to disrupt, expose, and damage critical sectors in Israel. Understanding these threats is crucial for mitigating the impact of these malicious activities.

Recommendations:

  • Be Careful with Emails: Avoid clicking links or downloading attachments from unknown or unsolicited emails. Phishing is a common method hackers use to access personal information.
  • Use Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Enable 2FA on all accounts to add an extra layer of security.
  • Regularly Update Systems: Keep all software and systems up to date with the latest security patches to prevent exploitation of known vulnerabilities.

By adopting these practices, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of falling victim to cyberattacks and ensure a robust defense against the ever-evolving threat landscape.


Recent Data Breach at Ayesa: A Ransomware Case Study

Strengthening Defenses Against Ransomware Attacks

In recent years, ransomware attacks where criminals lock up a victim’s data and demand money to unlock it have become a serious threat to organizations worldwide. These attacks target many sectors, including healthcare and finance. The goal is often not just to make money but also to cause disruption and chaos. One group known for these aggressive tactics is Black Basta. They use a method called double extortion, where they not only lock the victim’s data but also threaten to release sensitive information unless they are paid. As these cybercriminals continue to improve their methods, it is increasingly important for organizations to strengthen their defenses.

The Ayesa Data Breach

Ayesa, a leading Spanish company providing technology and engineering services, seems to have recently fallen victim to a potential ransomware attack by Black Basta. With over 12,500 employees and a presence in 23 countries, the possible breach at Ayesa highlights the extensive reach of these cyber criminals. The attack, which was made public on May 13, 2024, potentially resulted in the theft of about 4.5 terabytes of sensitive data, including:

  • Company data (treasury, human resources, administration, general management, security, audits, etc.)
  • Employees’ data
  • Projects and CAD files
ransomware attacks

The Threat of Detailed Profiling

The types of data potentially stolen from Ayesa, such as personal details of employees and company information, can be highly valuable for criminals. With this information, threat actors can create synthetic identities to impersonate employees. These synthetic identities can then be used to commit fraud, purchase illicit items, or even access secure company systems by posing as legitimate employees. Additionally, cybercriminals can further enhance these synthetic identities by accessing the information available from data brokers. Data brokers collect and sell large amounts of personal information, often gathered from public sources such as social media profiles, past employment history, and other publicly available records. This information can be accessed by cybercriminals to enhance their profiling efforts significantly. Additionally, information from previous breaches can be cross-referenced to enrich these profiles further.

example of ransomware attack

For example, if a cybercriminal obtains an employee’s name, job title, and contact information from Ayesa, they can look up additional details such as social media profiles, past employment history, and other personal records from data brokers. This enriched profile can then be used to craft highly targeted phishing emails or impersonation attempts, making the attacks more convincing and increasing the likelihood of success.

ayesa ransomware attack

The Ease of Exploiting Leaked Data

Generative AI tools, especially those without ethical restrictions like WormGPT or FraudGPT, enable cybercriminals to automate and carry out more realistic and sophisticated fraudulent attacks.

These tools can write undetectable malware, create convincing phishing pages, and generate spear-phishing emails that appear to come from trusted sources within an organization. The ability of AI to exploit human psychology significantly increases the likelihood of successful cyberattacks.

Potential Attack Vectors

With the kind of data a cybercriminal can obtain from these data breaches, several attack vectors can be exploited:

  1. Identity Theft: Personal data such as ID card photos and employee information can be used to commit identity theft, leading to financial loss and reputational damage.
  2. Phishing and Social Engineering: Detailed personal and company data can help attackers craft convincing phishing emails, increasing the success rate of these attacks.
  3. Intellectual Property Theft: Projects and CAD files contain valuable intellectual property that malicious actors could exploit.
  4. Credential Stuffing: Access to employee credentials could allow attackers to gain unauthorized access to other systems where the same credentials might be used.

Cybersecurity Recommendations

In addition to the classical tips we have provided in previous blogs, such as enabling MFA, it is important to take additional steps to secure your devices and networks.

  • Secure Your Devices: Ensure that any device used to access sensitive information is secured with updated antivirus software and a firewall. Regularly update your operating system and software to protect against vulnerabilities.
  • Use Secure Networks: Avoid using public Wi-Fi to access or transmit sensitive information. Instead, use a secured or virtual private network (VPN) to enhance online privacy.
  • Remove Unused Accounts: Review and delete any accounts for unused services regularly. Ensuring your information is not stored unnecessarily reduces the risk of being exposed to a breach.
  • Be Cautious of Phishing and Scams: Always be wary of unsolicited emails, messages, or phone calls asking for personal information. Verify the authenticity of the source before responding, and avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown senders. Recognizing and avoiding phishing attempts can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to scams.

By following these steps, individuals can better protect their personal information from cyber threats and mitigate the impact of potential data breaches. In an increasingly digital world, staying informed and proactive is essential to maintaining security and trust.

Recent Healthcare Ransomware Attacks

Healthcare ransomware attacks are one example of cyberattacks for the healthcare sector due to the sensitivity of its data. In recent weeks, several attacks and data breaches have been identified, highlighting the sector’s target for ransomware groups and unwanted data exfiltration. The following cases highlight the severity and scope of these attacks.

New Boston Dental Care Healthcare Ransomware Attacks

New Boston Dental Care fell victim to a ransomware attack by the 8BASE group that was disclosed on May 13, 2024. Unlike the NHS Scotland incident, the attackers have provided a download link for the stolen data, and the period for the company to pay the ransom has expired. The compromised files include:

  • Invoices
  • Receipts
  • Accounting records
  • Certificates
  • Employment contracts
  • Confidential information

The publication of these files indicates that the negotiation period has ended without a resolution, leading to the public release of sensitive information.

NHS Scotland Healthcare Ransomware Attacks

NHS Scotland, the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland and part of the UK’s National Health Service, was attacked by the INC Ransom group. The attack was publicized on May 11, 2024. The threat actor behind this attack appears to have attempted negotiations with NHS Scotland, but as of now, they have not received a response. Consequently, the data has not yet been leaked.

The compromised data includes:

  • 3 terabytes of data
  • More than 100 internal files

Currently, no full data has been published as the ransom group seems to be in ongoing contact with NHS Scotland.

Covid19MOVE Breach

At Constella, we have identified several breaches in the healthcare sector over recent weeks, one of the most significant being the Covid19MOVE breach. Detected on April 29, 2024, this breach exposed approximately 12 million records related to Covid-19 patients in Russia. The types of exposed data include:

  • Emails
  • Dates
  • Phone numbers
  • Other user-related information

The data from this breach has not been attributed to a specific company, suggesting it could be a compilation of Covid-19 related data from various sources.

Saudi Ministry of Health Data Breach

Additionally, at Constella, we have analyzed various sources from the Dark Web and detected that a database containing information from the Saudi Ministry of Health (500 GB), according to the threat actor, this information has recently been put up for sale by a user known as verifiedBpp. The data spans from 2020 to 2024 and includes:

  • Full names, addresses, telephone numbers, blood types, patient records, staff internal messages, and emails
  • Access to admin, staff, and patient pages, with capabilities to remove users and change permissions
  • Internal systems data, including Covid-19 system, my health system, and Seha (the largest healthcare network in the UAE)
  • Details such as infections, tests, recoveries, deaths, and other data
  • Specific information like name, ID number, age, nationality, gender, place of diagnosis, residence, mobile phone number, and more

The post’s owner claims that the Ministry of Health’s servers were hacked, with access gained on January 3, 2021, and maintained through March 21, 2024. The total amount of data stolen is estimated to be 500 GB. The owner also mentioned that he could leak 100 GB of this sensitive data if he wants.

Cybersecurity Recommendations for Patient Data Management and Software

Given the recent surge in healthcare ransomware attacks, it’s crucial to take proactive steps to protect our health information. Here are some tips to help safeguard your personal health data against such cyber threats:

  • Be Vigilant with Emails: Avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown or unsolicited emails. Phishing is a common method used by hackers to gain access to personal information.
  • Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Whenever available, activate two-factor authentication on your online healthcare accounts. This adds an extra layer of security by requiring a second form of verification.
  • Educate Yourself on Your Rights: Familiarize yourself with your rights under health information privacy laws, such as HIPAA in the U.S., which can help you understand how your data should be handled and what to do if you suspect it’s being misused.
  • Secure Your Devices: Ensure that any device you use to access healthcare information is secured with updated antivirus software and a firewall. This can help block malicious attacks before they reach your data.
  • Use Secure Networks: Avoid using public Wi-Fi to access or transmit your health information. Instead, use a secured, private network or a virtual private network (VPN) to enhance your online privacy.
  • Remove Unused Accounts: Regularly review and delete any accounts for healthcare services you no longer use. Ensuring that your health information is not stored unnecessarily reduces the risk of it being exposed in a breach.

By taking these steps, you can help protect your sensitive health information from cyber threats and mitigate the impact of any potential data breaches in the healthcare sector. For more information about how to protect your organization and your patients, contact Constella.

Unveiling the Underworld of Bank Breaches: Navigating the Digital Frontlines of Financial Cybersecurity

Bank breaches and the banking world are now a front line in cybersecurity, where hidden networks thrive in the shadows of the dark web and encrypted chats. As technology advances, the dangers of bank hacks grow, transforming old-school bank robbers into modern cyber thieves who operate from behind screens worldwide.

Social media, especially platforms like TikTok, Instagram, and Twitter, play pivotal roles in this shift. Hashtags like #CCCard, #CardCloning, and #CloningCards aren’t just trendy—they’re where cybercriminals mingle, share hacking tips, and flaunt their crimes.

These platforms, along with encrypted apps like Telegram and dark web marketplaces, form a kind of cybercriminal university. Here, new hackers can learn everything from cloning cards to cracking bank security, all shared openly in tutorials and forums. This easy access to criminal resources marks a stark evolution from the masked, gun-toting bank robbers of the past to today’s sophisticated digital thieves.

Below, you’ll find screenshots that capture these exchanges, highlighting how these digital platforms have reinvented the concept of bank robbery, giving it a vast, tech-savvy reach.

Navigating the digital frontier, it’s evident that traditional security measures no longer suffice against the advanced tactics of today’s cybercriminals. This shifting landscape demands more robust and adaptive security strategies to protect sensitive information.

At Constella, we have compiled a concise summary that reflects our ongoing focus on the latest data breaches we’ve uncovered on the Dark Web. Below, we detail these findings.

Bank Breach – HSBC & Barclays

Last May 8, one of the moderators of this breaches forum, called “IntelBroker” (very renowned actor), and another member named “Sanggiero”, published several CSV files, concretely, if we add up all the records of all the documents, there would be more than 2 million records, with valuable information of users of two of the most internationally known banks, these files specifically contain:

  • Database Files.
  • Certificated files.
  •  Source Code.
  •  SQL files.
  •  JSON config files.
  •  Compiled Jar files.

Bank Breach – Argentina Central Bank

On May 2nd, a significant banking breach was reported by a user known as ‘303’, who has a solid reputation on the forum. Although the exact date the breach occurred wasn’t specified, the user noted that the data is from 2024. This breach impacted over 49,000 customers, exposing sensitive information including:

  • Customers’ full names
  • ID numbers
  • Home addresses
  • Cities

Bank Breach – Kernel Finance

On April 26th, a threat actor named ‘netnsher’ potentially targeted ‘India’s Simplest GST Billing Solution’, Kernel Finance, leading to a data breach that exposed over 7,000 bank account numbers and sensitive information. Within this breach, the following type of information can be found:

  • Id.
  • Created_at.
  • Updated_at.
  • Deleted_at.
  • Created_for_account.
  • Document_type.
  • Reminder_period_type.
  • Reminder_receiver_type.
  • Trigger_period_days.
  • Is_enabled.
  • Resource_type.
  • Additional_fields.
  • Created_by_user.

Bank Breach – M&T Bank

The same day, April 26th, this threat actor, “netnsher”, exposed data over 600 rows of access tokens and essential files of the Law Firm Banking Trustnota by M&T bank. All this information could be current active access tokens, as the threat actor said that any user with access to the accounts can get a lot of money. The information includes:

  • Bank account details
  • Residential locations
  • Other personal data (National ID, Age, Status, etc…)

The breaches we’ve discussed here are just a few examples of what’s been happening on the Dark Web over the last few weeks. These incidents highlight the ongoing and very real threats that exist online, especially in hidden corners of the internet. To help protect yourself, here are some straightforward tips:

  • Be Cautious with Personal Information: It’s crucial not to share sensitive details like your social security number or bank account information with people you don’t know. This can help prevent identity theft and fraud.
  • Use Virtual Cards for Online Purchases: If possible, opt for virtual credit or debit cards when shopping online. These provide an extra layer of security by masking your real card details and keeping your primary accounts safer.
  • Subscribe to an Identity Monitoring Service: Consider using a service that monitors your identity. These services can alert you if your personal information is being used without your permission, helping you respond quickly to potential threats.

Taking these steps can enhance your defenses against the types of cyber threats that are becoming more common in our increasingly digital world.

Recent Breaches in Israel and Iran: A Closer Look at Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities

In recent times, Israel and Iran have been caught up in a series of conflicts and tensions, both on the geopolitical stage and in cyberspace posing significant challenges to regional stability but have also made both nations targets for cybersecurity vulnerabilities. As tensions intensify, so does the risk of cyberattacks aimed at critical infrastructure, government institutions, and individual citizens.

Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities are Rising after Hamas Assault

At Constella, we’ve observed the escalating cyberwar between Israel and Iran manifesting through a series of high-profile data breaches. This ongoing cyber conflict not only reflects the heightened geopolitical tensions but also reveals a disturbing trend of sensitive data being weaponized. Our analysis shows that these breaches affect not only government institutions and key organizations but also impact millions of individual citizens, emphasizing the far-reaching consequences of cyber warfare.

  1. Israel insured information

On April 3rd, a threat actor named “MakhlabalNasr” claimed to have accessed data for 8 million Israelis insured with the Israel National Insurance Institute. The information includes bank account details, residential locations, and other personal data. This sensitive data is being shared in a Telegram group associated with the hacking group Makhlab_al_Nasr.

2. Israel Department of Defense

Later that week, on April 7th, a different threat actor claimed in the same breach forum to have access to sensitive information from the Israel Department of Defense. Although much of this data appears to have been previously exposed in 2023, the recent resurface of the breach compromised thousands of additional records containing the following information:

  • National ID
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Project
  • Group
  • Phone Number
  • Email Address
  • Date of Birth
  • Age
  • Hebrew Birth Date
  • City
  • Address
  • Gender
  • Status
  • Father’s Name
  • Country of Origin
  • Level of Support
  • General
  • Injuries

3. Israel Election Campaign

In a separate incident, another breach potentially from an election app that was utilized by the Likud Party and other political affiliations exposed over 6.5 million records containing voter registration data and personal details of Israeli citizens. The compromised information included:

  • Full names
  • Phone numbers
  •  Identity card numbers
  •  Residential addresses
  •  Gender
  •  Age
  •  Political preferences

4. Israel Post

Earlier this week, on May 7th, a breach originally published in November 2021 resurfaced, with the threat actor group claiming it originated from Israel Post. This breach reportedly compromised 900K unique email addresses, along with associated personal information.

These are just a few examples of the many breaches we’ve observed over the last few days. The total number of Israel-related breaches has risen by 80% in recent months, reflecting the escalating cyberwar.

Similarly, Iran has not been immune to the dangers of cyber warfare. Collaborative efforts between Russia and Iran, as evidenced by the Crescent of Anon leak, have revealed a troubling alliance in cyberspace. The leak exposes not only email addresses, IP addresses, and domain names but also documents and agreements between Russia and Iran. These documents shed light on the depth of cooperation between the two nations in the realm of warfare, raising questions about their collective goals and potential targets.

In addition, the leak includes mentions of drone-related issues, suggesting discussions or plans for malicious operations beyond the traditional spheres of conflict.

Tips for Preventing Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities

Regardless of whether or not you are a citizen of countries embroiled in the ongoing cyberwar, as a member of the digital world, it’s crucial to protect yourself against the rising tide of cyber threats.

Follow these tips:

  • Monitor Your Accounts Closely: Regularly check your bank statements, credit card statements, and any online accounts for unauthorized transactions or suspicious activity. Early detection can prevent further damage.
  • Set Up Alerts: Many financial institutions offer free alert services that notify you of any unusual activity in your accounts. Enabling these alerts can provide you with immediate updates on any potential unauthorized transactions.
  • Change Passwords Regularly: If your data has been compromised, change your passwords immediately. Use strong, unique passwords for each of your accounts and consider using a password manager to keep track of them.
  • Be Wary of Phishing Attempts: Be cautious with emails, phone calls, or messages that ask for personal information or direct you to a website where you need to input personal data. Verify the authenticity of the request by contacting the organization directly using a trusted number or website.

Security in the AI Sector: Understanding Infostealer Exposures and Corporate Risks

As Constella analyzed in the first part of this blog series, which focused on exhibitions in the emerging AI sector, we’ll delve deeper into the risks and vulnerabilities in this field, along with the threat of Infostealer exposures. Constella has evaluated some of the most relevant and utilized tools in the AI field, revealing concerning Infostealer exposures.

Diving Into the Data: Understanding the Impact

Our analysis exposes a stark reality: Over one million user accounts are at risk, predominantly due to devices infected by Infostealers. Among the compromised data, we’ve identified corporate credentials representing a substantial security threat. This discovery highlights the critical need for strengthened protective measures to safeguard sensitive information.

Through our analysis, we have uncovered significant credential exposures at several AI-focused companies, specifically: Openai, Wondershare, Figma, Zapier, Cutout, Elevenlabs, Huggingface, Make, and Heygen among others.

Understanding the Impact of Infostealer Exposures and Taking Action

A threat actor can exploit exposed credentials from AI companies to orchestrate sophisticated attacks, even if multi-factor authentication (MFA) is in use.

Personal account information, when compromised by an infostealer infection, can be exploited through social engineering strategies such as phishing campaigns. These tactics deceive employees into unwittingly providing access or divulging further confidential details. The stakes are particularly high in AI companies, where such breaches can lead to several specific threats:

  1. Data Privacy and Confidentiality Risks: Access to AI tools like ChatGPT by unauthorized parties could result in the exposure of sensitive information, violating confidentiality agreements and privacy norms.
  • Surveillance and Tracking: Compromised AI systems could be used for covert surveillance, enabling unauthorized tracking of individuals or organizational activities.
  • Model Poisoning: Interference with the training data of AI models by malicious entities can corrupt their outputs, producing biased or harmful results and compromising the integrity of the AI applications.

To safeguard against the risks associated with infostealer infections and enhance security in AI environments, consider implementing the following strategies:

  • Regularly Update and Patch Systems: Ensure that all systems are up-to-date with the latest security patches. Regular updates can close vulnerabilities that could be exploited by threat actors.
  • Monitor and Audit AI Model Inputs and Outputs: Regularly review the inputs and outputs of AI models to detect any signs of model poisoning or other anomalies that could indicate tampering.
  • Limit Data Retention: Establish clear data retention policies to reduce exposure risks.

Cyber Threats in the Age of AI: Protecting Your Digital DNA

The rapid proliferation of AI also introduces a new frontier for cyber threats against your digital DNA. As businesses and individuals increasingly adopt AI technologies, they inadvertently become prime targets for cybercriminals. The allure lies in the vast amounts of sensitive data handled by AI applications, spanning from financial records to personal information.

AI has transformed from niche technology into a mainstream powerhouse, revolutionizing industries and reshaping the way we interact with technology. From predictive analytics to autonomous vehicles, AI tools have become indispensable assets for companies seeking efficiency, innovation, and competitive advantage.

Moreover, the predominance of paid tools and services within the AI sector makes it an enticing prospect for cyber attackers seeking economic gain. Breaching AI companies provides access to valuable assets such as bank data, proprietary algorithms, and project details, while exploiting vulnerabilities in AI systems can lead to unauthorized extraction of personal information. Consequently, as we witness the expansion of the AI industry, it’s imperative for businesses and individuals to bolster their defenses against potential breaches and data compromises.

Hackers can read private Ai-assisted chats even though they are encrypted

Recently, security breaches have been reported at prominent companies in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), such as Cutout.pro and Leadzen.ai. These incidents have exposed a range of critical data, raising serious concerns about the protection of personal and confidential information.

Cutout.pro, founded in 2018 and based in China, is known for its innovative AI-based image processing technology. The potential attack occurred on February 28, 2024, where approximately 20M records were exposed.

Data exposed in the Cutout.pro breach:

  • Email addresses
  • Passwords
  • Names
  • Surnames
  • Phone numbers
  • IP addresses

On the other hand, Leadzen.ai, established in 2020 and headquartered in India, is known for its lead generation automation platform using AI. The attack potentially happened on March 29th, 2024, and approximately 780K records were compromised.

Data exposed in the Leadzen.ai breach:

  • Email
  • Full Name
  • User Social Networks
  • Job Position
  • Country
  • Location
  • Company Information
  • Location
  • Phone
compromised data

The compromised data was similar to those exposed on Cutout.pro potential attack, highlighting the critical importance of cybersecurity in an ever-evolving digital environment.

digital DNA
digital DNA

These attacks underscore the urgent need for companies to strengthen their cybersecurity measures and adopt robust practices to protect the sensitive data of their users and employees. In an increasingly interconnected digital world, safeguarding personal and confidential information is crucial to ensuring trust and integrity online.

Types of Attacks and Associated Risks: Given the nature of the data exposed in the breaches at Cutout.pro and Leadzen.ai, companies must be vigilant against several types of cyber threats:

  • Phishing and Spear Phishing Attacks: Cybercriminals can use the stolen email addresses and personal information to craft personalized phishing emails, tricking recipients into revealing more sensitive data or downloading malware.
  • Identity Theft: With access to full names, job positions, and other personal identifiers, attackers can impersonate individuals to commit fraud or other crimes.
  • Financial Fraud: Exposed financial and company information can be used to create fake accounts or authorize fraudulent transactions.

To enhance cybersecurity and protect against the risks associated with the increasing use of AI technologies, consider these three essential tips:

  1. Implement Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): This adds an extra layer of security by requiring more than one form of verification to access accounts, significantly reducing the risk of unauthorized access.
  2. Regularly Update and Patch Systems: Keeping software and systems up to date ensures that security vulnerabilities are addressed promptly, reducing the likelihood of exploitation by cybercriminals.
  3. Educate and Train Users: Continuous education on the latest cyber threats and safe practices can empower individuals and employees to recognize and avoid potential cybersecurity risks, such as phishing attempts and other social engineering tactics.

As AI technologies continue to advance and become integral to various industries, they also open up new cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Recent breaches at companies like Cutout.pro and Leadzen.ai highlight the importance of stringent security measures. Adopting practices such as multi-factor authentication, regular updates and patches, and ongoing user education can significantly bolster our defenses. These steps are crucial not only for protecting sensitive data but also for preserving trust and integrity in an increasingly digital world, underscoring the need for a collective effort in enhancing our cybersecurity framework.